Combined with the implicit conversion to scalar values in `if`

and
`while`

conditions, Octave’s element-by-element boolean operators
are often sufficient for performing most logical operations. However,
it is sometimes desirable to stop evaluating a boolean expression as
soon as the overall truth value can be determined. Octave’s
*short-circuit* boolean operators work this way.

¶`boolean1`&&`boolean2`The expression

`boolean1`is evaluated and converted to a scalar using the equivalent of the operation`all (`

. If`boolean1`(:))`boolean1`is not a logical value, it is considered true if its value is nonzero, and false if its value is zero. If`boolean1`is an array, it is considered true only if it is non-empty and all elements are nonzero. If`boolean1`evaluates to false, the result of the overall expression is false. If it is true, the expression`boolean2`is evaluated in the same way as`boolean1`. If it is true, the result of the overall expression is true. Otherwise the result of the overall expression is false.**Warning:**the one exception to the equivalence with evaluating`all (`

is when`boolean1`(:))`boolean1`

an the empty array. For MATLAB compatibility, the truth value of an empty array is always`false`

so`[] && true`

evaluates to`false`

even though`all ([])`

is`true`

.

¶`boolean1`||`boolean2`The expression

`boolean1`is evaluated and converted to a scalar using the equivalent of the operation`all (`

. If`boolean1`(:))`boolean1`is not a logical value, it is considered true if its value is nonzero, and false if its value is zero. If`boolean1`is an array, it is considered true only if it is non-empty and all elements are nonzero. If`boolean1`evaluates to true, the result of the overall expression is true. If it is false, the expression`boolean2`is evaluated in the same way as`boolean1`. If it is true, the result of the overall expression is true. Otherwise the result of the overall expression is false.**Warning:**the truth value of an empty matrix is always`false`

, see the previous list item for details.

The fact that both operands may not be evaluated before determining the overall truth value of the expression can be important. For example, in the expression

a && b++

the value of the variable `b` is only incremented if the variable
`a` is nonzero.

This can be used to write somewhat more concise code. For example, it is possible write

function f (a, b, c) if (nargin > 2 && ischar (c)) ...

instead of having to use two `if`

statements to avoid attempting to
evaluate an argument that doesn’t exist. For example, without the
short-circuit feature, it would be necessary to write

function f (a, b, c) if (nargin > 2) if (ischar (c)) ...

Writing

function f (a, b, c) if (nargin > 2 & ischar (c)) ...

would result in an error if `f`

were called with one or two
arguments because Octave would be forced to try to evaluate both of the
operands for the operator ‘`&`’.

MATLAB has special behavior that allows the operators ‘`&`’ and
‘`|`’ to short-circuit when used in the truth expression for `if`

and `while`

statements. Octave behaves the same way for
compatibility, however, the use of the ‘`&`’ and ‘`|`’ operators in
this way is strongly discouraged and a warning will be issued. Instead,
you should use the ‘`&&`’ and ‘`||`’ operators that always have
short-circuit behavior.

Finally, the ternary operator (?:) is not supported in Octave. If
short-circuiting is not important, it can be replaced by the `ifelse`

function.

- :
`M`=**merge**`(`

¶`mask`,`tval`,`fval`) - :
`M`=**ifelse**`(`

¶`mask`,`tval`,`fval`) Merge elements of

`true_val`and`false_val`, depending on the value of`mask`.If

`mask`is a logical scalar, the other two arguments can be arbitrary values. Otherwise,`mask`must be a logical array, and`tval`,`fval`should be arrays of matching class, or cell arrays. In the scalar mask case,`tval`is returned if`mask`is true, otherwise`fval`is returned.In the array mask case, both

`tval`and`fval`must be either scalars or arrays with dimensions equal to`mask`. The result is constructed as follows:result(mask) = tval(mask); result(! mask) = fval(! mask);

`mask`can also be arbitrary numeric type, in which case it is first converted to logical.Programming Note:

`ifelse`

is an alias for`merge`

and can be used interchangeably.