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#### 14.2.8 Integer Conversions

This section describes the options for the ‘%d’, ‘%i’, ‘%o’, ‘%u’, ‘%x’, and ‘%X’ conversion specifications. These conversions print integers in various formats.

The ‘%d’ and ‘%i’ conversion specifications both print an numeric argument as a signed decimal number; while ‘%o’, ‘%u’, and ‘%x’ print the argument as an unsigned octal, decimal, or hexadecimal number (respectively). The ‘%X’ conversion specification is just like ‘%x’ except that it uses the characters ‘ABCDEF’ as digits instead of ‘abcdef’.

The following flags are meaningful:

-

Left-justify the result in the field (instead of the normal right-justification).

+

For the signed ‘%d’ and ‘%i’ conversions, print a plus sign if the value is positive.

For the signed ‘%d’ and ‘%i’ conversions, if the result doesn’t start with a plus or minus sign, prefix it with a space character instead. Since the ‘+’ flag ensures that the result includes a sign, this flag is ignored if you supply both of them.

#

For the ‘%o’ conversion, this forces the leading digit to be ‘0’, as if by increasing the precision. For ‘%x’ or ‘%X’, this prefixes a leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ (respectively) to the result. This doesn’t do anything useful for the ‘%d’, ‘%i’, or ‘%u’ conversions.

0

Pad the field with zeros instead of spaces. The zeros are placed after any indication of sign or base. This flag is ignored if the ‘-’ flag is also specified, or if a precision is specified.

If a precision is supplied, it specifies the minimum number of digits to appear; leading zeros are produced if necessary. If you don’t specify a precision, the number is printed with as many digits as it needs. If you convert a value of zero with an explicit precision of zero, then no characters at all are produced.

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